GYANT’s Clinical Development Process and References

GYANT’s triage protocol and algorithm development process follows a rigorous approach to ensure that our clinical decision support tools provide safe, practical, and reasonable information in line with the latest medical literature and evidence-based medical practice guidelines.

Our content and protocol development process is overseen by our inhouse clinical team and incorporates thorough literature reviews, reviews by experts in relevant medical fields, medical advisory board reviews, as well as quantitative validation and testing with thousands of users.

Clinical and academic reference literature and sources consulted in the protocol development process include (non-exhaustive list):

Ahmed, A., & Graber, M. A. (2018). Evaluation of the adult with Dyspnea in the Emergency Department. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-the-adult-with-dyspnea-in-the-emergency-department?search=dyspnea&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2

Ahn, J. M., & El-Khoury, G. Y. (2007). Radiologic evaluation of chronic foot pain. American Family Physician, 76(7), 975-983. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/p975.html

Aring, A. M., & Chan, M. M. (2011). Acute rhinosinusitis in adults. American Family Physician, 83(9), 1057-1063. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0501/p1057.html

Ayoade, F. O., & Todd, J. R. (2017). Herpes simplex differential diagnoses. M. S. Bronze (Ed.). Medscape. Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/218580-differential

Barr, W., & Smith, A. (2014). Acute diarrhea in adults. American Family Physician, 89(3), 180-189. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p180.html

Benich, J. J. & Carek, P. J. (2011). Evaluation of the patient with chronic cough. American Family Physician, 84(8), 887-892. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1015/p887.html

Blazar, P. E. (Nov 10, 2017). History and examination of the adult with hand pain. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/history-and-examination-of-the-adult-with-hand-pain?search=hand%20arthritis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1

Bonnet, M.H., & Arand, D.L. (2018). Evaluation and Diagnosis of Insomnia in Adults. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-and-diagnosis-of-insomnia-in-adults?search=insomnia&source=search_result&selectedTitle=4~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=4

Brill, J. R. (2010). Diagnosis and treatment of urethritis in men. American Family Physician, 81(7), 873-878. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/p873.html

Calmbach, W. L., & Hutchens, M. (2003). Evaluation of patients presenting with knee pain: Part I. History, physical examination, radiographs, and laboratory tests. American Family Physician, 68(5), 907-912. Retrieved from  https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0901/p907.html

Calmbach, W. L., & Hutchens, M. (2003). Evaluation of patients presenting with knee pain: Part II. Differential diagnosis. American Family Physician, 68(5), 917-922. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0901/p917.html

Cartwright, S.L., & Knudson, M.P. (2008). Evaluation of acute abdominal pain in adults. American Family Physician, 77(7), 971-978. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/p971.html

Casazza, B. A. (2012). Diagnosis and treatment of acute low back pain. American Family Physician, 85(4), 343-350. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/p343.html

Christopher, H. F. (2018). An overview of asthma management. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/an-overview-of-asthma-management?search=asthma&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1

Clark, Molly & Norris, David (2012). Am Fam Physician. 2012 Mar 15;85(6):602-605. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0315/p602.html

Cohen-Gadol, A. A., & Bohnstedt, B. N. (2013). Evaluation of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and ruptured cerebral aneurysm. American Family Physician, 88(7), 451-456. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/p451.html

Coughlin, L. (2007). Cough: Diagnosis and management. American Family Physician, 75(4), 567-575. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0215/p567.html

Crawford, P., & Crop, J. A. (2014). Evaluation of scrotal masses. American Family Physician, 89(9), 723-727. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0501/p723.html

Cronau, H., Kankanala, R. R., & Mauger, T. (2010). Diagnosis and management of red eye in primary care. American Family Physician, 81(2), 137-144. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0115/p137.html

Daffner, R. (2010). Radiologic evaluation of chronic neck pain. American Family Physician, 92(9), 959-964. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1015/p959.html

Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2016). Advanced health assessment & clinical diagnosis in primary care (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Disorders of the vulva: Common causes of vulvar pain, burning, and itching. (2015, Sept). The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Retrieved from https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Disorders-of-the-Vulva-Common-Causes-of-Vulvar-Pain-Burning-and-Itching

Douglass, A. B., & Bope, E. T. (2004). Evaluation ad treatment of posterior neck pain in family medicine. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 17, S13-S22. Retrieved from http://www.jabfm.org/content/17/suppl_1/S13.long

Earwood, J. S., Rogers, T. S., & Rathjen, N. A. (2018). Ear pain: Diagnosing common and uncommon causes. American Family Physician, 97(1), 20-27. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p20.html

Ely, J. W., Hansen, M. R., & Clark, E. C. (2008). Diagnosis of ear pain. American Family Physician, 77(5), 621-628. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/p621.html

Eubanks, J.D. (2010). Cervical Radiculopathy: Nonoperative Management of Neck Pain and Radicular Symptoms. American Family Physician, 81(1), 33-40. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/p33.html

Eubanks, J. D. (2010). Nonoperative management of neck pain and radicular symptoms. American Family Physician, 81(1), 33-40. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/p33.html

Ferrer, R. (1998). Lymphadenopathy: Differential diagnosis and evaluation. American Family Physician, 58(6), 1313-1320. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1015/p1313.html

Fields, K. B. (Jan 17, 2018). Evaluation and diagnosis of common causes of foot pain in adults. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-and-diagnosis-of-common-causes-of-foot-pain-in-adults?search=flatfoot&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~67&usage_type=default&display_rank=2#H13378212

Fields, Karl B (2016). Evaluation of the Patient with Shoulder Pain. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-the-patient-with-shoulder-complaints?search=shoulder%20pain&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H13

Fiore, D. C., Pasternak, A. V., & Radwan, R. M. (2010). Pain in the quiet (not red) eye. American Family Physician, 82(1), 69-73. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/p69.html

Foot pain and problems (n.d.). Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/adult/orthopaedic_disorders/foot_pain_and_problems_85,P00914

Fricker, P. (2018). Evaluation of the Adult with Hip Pain. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-the-adult-with-hip-pain?search=hip%20pain&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1#H10

Galejs, L. E., & Kass, E. J. (1999). Diagnosis and treatment of the acute scrotum. American Family Physician, 59(4), 817-824. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0215/p817.html

Gelston, C. D. (2013). Common eye emergencies. American Family Physician, 88(8), 515-519. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1015/p515.html

Gonsalves, W. C., Chi, A. C., & Neville, B. W. (2007). Common oral lesions: Part I. Superficial mucosal lesions. American Family Physician, 75(4), 501-506. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0215/p501.html

Gonsalves, W. C., Chi, A. C., & Neville, B. W. (2007). Common oral lesions: Part II. Masses and neoplasia. American Family Physician, 75(4), 509-512. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0215/p509.html

Gradison, M. (2012). Pelvic inflammatory disease. American Family Physician, 85(8), 791-796. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0415/p791.html

Hainer, B.L., & Gibson, M.V. (2011). Vaginitis: Diagnosis and treatment. American Family Physician, 83(7), 807-815. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0401/p807.html

Hainer, B. L., & Gibson, M. V. (2011). Vaginitis: Diagnosis and treatment. American Family Physician, 83(7), 807-815. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0401/p807.html

Hainer, B.L., & Matheson, E.M. (2013). Approach to acute headache in adults. American Family Physician, 87(10), 682-687. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0515/p682.html

Hamilos, D. L. (2016, Oct 28). Chronic rhinosinusitis: Clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and diagnosis. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/chronic-rhinosinusitis-clinical-manifestations-pathophysiology-and-diagnosis

Hand pain and problems (n.d.). Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/adult/orthopaedic_disorders/hand_pain_and_problems_85,P00917

Haynes, J., Arnold, K. R., Aguirre-Oskins, C., & Chandra, S. (2015). Evaluation of neck masses in adults. American Family Physician, 91(10), 698-706. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0515/p698.html

Hersch, E. C., & Oh, R. C. (2014). Prolonged febrile illness and fever of unknown origin in adults. American Family Physician, 90(2), 91-96. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p91.html

Hofmeister, S., & Bodden, S. (2016). Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. American Family Physician, 94(3), 236-240. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p236.html

Issac, Z. (Jan 29, 2018). Evaluation of the patient with neck pain and cervical spine disorders. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-the-patient-with-neck-pain-and-cervical-spine-disorders?search=neck%20pain&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1

Jerant, A. F., Johnson, J. T., Sheridan, C. D., & Caffrey, T. J. (2000). Early detection and treatment of skin cancer. American Family Physician, 62(2), 357-368. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0715/p357.html

Juckett, G., & Trivedi, R. (2011). Evaluation of chronic diarrhea. American Family Physician, 84(10), 1119-1126. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/p1119.html

Klein, D. A., & Poth, M. A. (2013). Amenorrhea: An approach to diagnosis and management. American Family Physician, 87(11), 761-788. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/p781.html

Knee pain and problems (n.d.). Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/adult/orthopaedic_disorders/knee_pain_and_problems_85,P00923

Kuhlman, G.S., & Domb, B.G. (2009). Hip Impingement: Identifying and Treating a Common Cause of Hip Pain. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Dec 15; 80(12):1429-1434. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1429.html

Labuguen, R. H. (2006). Initial evaluation of vertigo. American Family Physician, 73(2), 244-251. Retrieved from  https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p244.html

Luba, M. C., Bangs, S. A., Mohler, A. M., & Stulberg, D. L. (2003). Common benign skin tumors. American Family Physician, 67(4), 729-738. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0215/p729.html

Maness, D.L.,  & Khan, M. (2015). Nonpharmacologic Management of Chronic Insomnia. Am Fam Physician. 2015 Dec 15;92(12):1058-1064. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1058.html

Manning-Dimmitt, L. L., Dimmitt, S. G., & Wilson, G. R. (2005). Diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding in adults. American Family Physician, 71(7), 1339-1346. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0401/p1339.html

Margesson, L. J., & Haefner, H. K. (2018, Feb 12). Vulvar lesions: Differential diagnosis based on morphology. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/vulvar-lesions-differential-diagnosis-based-on-morphology

McConaghy, J.R., & Oza, R.S. (2013). Outpatient diagnosis of acute chest pain in adults. American Family Physician, 87(3), 177-182. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0201/p177.html

Meneghett, A. (2017). Upper respiratory tract infection differential diagnoses. Z. Mosenifar (Ed.). Medscape. Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/302460-differential

Michaudet, C., & Malaty, J. (2017). Chronic cough: Evaluation and management. American Family Physician, 96(9), 575-580. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p575.html

Michels, T.C. (2015). Dysuria: Evaluation and differential diagnosis in adults. American Family Physician, 92(9), 778-788. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p778.html

Monica, James (2016). Acute Shoulder Injuries in Adults. Am Fam Physician. 2016 Jul 15;94(2):119-127. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p119.html

Pflipsen, M., Massaquoi, M., & Wolf, S. (2016). Evaluation of the painful eye. American Family Physician, 93(12), 991-998. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0615/p991.html

Pollart, S. M., Compton, R. M., & Elward, K. S. (2011). Management of acute asthma exacerbations. American Family Physician, 84(1), 40-47. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p40.html

Post, R. E. (2010). Dizziness: A diagnostic approach. American Family Physician, 92(4), 361-368. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p361.html

Ramakrishnan, K., Salinas, R. C., & Higuita, N. I. A. (2015). Skin and soft tissue infections. American Family Physician, 92(6), 474-483. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p474.html

Reeder, G. S., Awtry, E., & Mahler, S. A. (2018, Jan 29). Initial evaluation and management of suspected acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction, unstable angina) in the emergency department. UptoDate. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/initial-evaluation-and-management-of-suspected-acute-coronary-syndrome-myocardial-infarction-unstable-angina-in-the-emergency-department#H40643584

Roett, M. A., Mayor, M. T., & Uduhiri, K. A. (2012). Diagnosis and management of genital ulcers. American Family Physician, 85(3), 254-262. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p254.html

Rosenthal, T. C., Majeroni, B. A., Pretorius, R., & Malik, K. (2008). Fatigue: An overview. American Family Physician, 78(10), 1173-1179. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1115/p1173.html

Runser, L. A., Gauer, R. L., & Houser, A. (2017). Syncope: Evaluation and differential diagnosis. American Family Physician, 95(5), 303-312. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p303.html

Sabatine, M.S. (2017). Pocket medicine (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Saguil, A. (2005). Evaluation of the patient with muscle weakness. American Family Physician, 71(7), 1327-1336. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0401/p1327.html

Schreiber, Jennifer & Culpepper, Larry (2018). Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/suicidal-ideation-and-behavior-in-adults?search=Suicidal%20ideation&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1

Schwartzstein, R.M. (2018). Approach to the Patient with Dyspnea. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-the-patient-with-dyspnea?search=dyspnea&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1

Scorza, K., Williams, A., Phillips, J. D., & Shaw, J. (2007). Evaluation of nausea and vomiting. American Family Physician, 76(1), 76-84. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0701/p76.html

Simmons, B. R., Cirignano, B., & Gadegbeku, A. B. (2012). Transient ischemic attack: Part I. Diagnosis and evaluation. American Family Physician, 86(6), 521-526. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/p521.html

Stefanovic, K. B., Gregg, P. C., & Soung, M. (2009). Evaluation and treatment of hematospermia. American Family Physician, 80(12), 1421-1427. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1421.html

Teichman, J. M. H., & Sea, J. (2010). Noninfectious penile lesions. American Family Physician, 81(2), 167-174. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0115/p167.html

Traumatic brain injury & concussion. (2017, Mar 22). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/symptoms.html

Trayes, K. P., & Studdiford, J. S. (2013). Edema: Diagnosis and management. American Family Physician, 88(2), 102-110. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0715/p102.html

Tu, P. (2018). Heel pain: Diagnosis and management. American Family Physician, 97(2), 86-93. Retrieved from  https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0115/p86.html

Usatine, R. P., & Tinitigan, R. (2010). Nongenital herpes simplex virus. American Family Physician, 82(9), 1075-1082. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1101/p1075.html

Vincent, M. T., Celestin, N., & Hussain, A. N. (2004). Pharyngitis. American Family Physician, 69(6), 1465-1470. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0315/p1465.html

Wahls, S.A. (2012). Causes and Evaluation of Chronic Dyspnea. Am Fam Physician, 2012;86(2):173-180. Retrieved from  https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0715/p173.html

Wilson, J.J., & Furukawa, M. (2014). Evaluation of the Patient with Hip Pain. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89(1):27-34. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p27.pdf

Yancey, J. R., & Thomas, S. M. (2012). Chronic fatigue syndrome: Diagnosis and treatment. American Family Physician, 86(8), 741-746. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1015/p741.html

Daffner, H. R. (2010). Radiologic evaluation of chronic neck pain. American Family Physician, 82(8), 959-964. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1015/p959.html

Zimmerman, M. (2016, Dec 3). Using scales to monitor symptoms and treat depression (measurement based care). Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/using-scales-to-monitor-symptoms-and-treat-depression-measurement-based-care

Zoorob, R.J. (2003). Acute Dyspnea in the Office. Am Fam Physician, 2003; 68:1803-10. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1101/p1803.html

Pediatric Resources

Adams, J. A. (2001). Evaluating Children for Possible Sexual Abuse. American Family Physician, 63(5), 843. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0301/p843.html

Allen, C. H. (2019). Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management – UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/fever-in-infants-and-children-pathophysiology-and-management

Allmon, A., Deane, K., & Martin, K. L. (2015). Common Skin Rashes in Children. 92(3). https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/afp20150801p211.pdf

Alper, B. S., & Curry, S. H. (2005). Urinary Tract Infection in Children. American Family Physician, 72(12), 12. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1215/p2483.html

Armstrong, C. A. (2020). Approach to the clinical dermatologic diagnosis – UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-the-clinical-dermatologic-diagnosis

Baird, D. C., Seehusen, D. A., & Bode, D. V. (2014). Enuresis in Children: A Case-Based Approach. American Family Physician, 90(8), 560–568. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1015/p560.html

Barson, W. J. (2020). Community-acquired pneumonia in children: Clinical features and diagnosis – UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-clinical-features-and-diagnosis

Bell, A. L., Elizabeth Rodes, M., & Collier Kellar, L. (2013). Childhood Eye Examination. American Family Physician, 88(4), 241–248. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0815/p241

Bernstein, R. M. (2007). Evaluation of Back Pain in Children and Adolescents. American Family Physician, 76(11), 1669–1676. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/p1669.html#:~:text=When%20children%20or%20adolescents%20seek,%2C%20scoliosis%2C%20and%20Scheuermann%E2%80%99s%20kyphosis

Biggs, W. S., & Dery, W. H. (2006). Evaluation and Treatment of Constipation in Infants and Children. American Family Physician, 73(3), 469–477. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0201/p469.html

Binder, A. (2005). Neck Pain. American Family Physician, 71(1), 117. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0101/p117.html

Boos, S. C. (2020). Physical child abuse: Recognition – UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/physical-child-abuse-recognition?search=abuse%20children&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2

Brett-Fleegler, M. (2020). Approach to neck stiffness in children – UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-neck-stiffness-in-children?search=neck%20pain&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1

Bunt, C. W., Jonas, C. E., & Chang, J. G. (2018). Knee Pain in Adults and Adolescents: The Initial Evaluation. American Family Physician, 98(9), 576–585. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p576.html

Canadian C-Spine Rule – MDCalc. (n.d.). Retrieved September 24, 2020, from https://www.mdcalc.com/canadian-c-spine-rule

Canadian C-Spine Rules. (n.d.). Ottawa Health Research Institute (OHRI). Retrieved September 24, 2020, from http://www.ohri.ca/emerg/cdr/docs/cdr_cspine_poster.pdf

Caring for Minor Burns – American Family Physician. (2012). American Family Physician, 85(1), 33–33. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0101/p33.html

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. (n.d.-a). Foreign Body Ingestion — Pathway for the Evaluation/Treatment of the Child with Foreign Body Ingestion — Coins/Blunt Objects Confirmed on X-Ray. Retrieved September 24, 2020, from https://www.chop.edu/clinical-pathway/foreign-body-ingestion-coinsblunt-objects-confirmed-x-ray

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. (n.d.-b). Foreign Body Ingestion Clinical Pathway – Suspected Foreign Body Ingestion. Retrieved September 24, 2020, from https://www.chop.edu/clinical-pathway/foreign-body-ingestion-clinical-pathway

Choe, J. M. (2000). Paraphimosis: Current Treatment Options. American Family Physician, 62(12), 2623–2626. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1215/p2623.html

Chorley, J. (2020). Elbow injuries in active children or skeletally immature adolescents: Approach – UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/elbow-injuries-in-active-children-or-skeletally-immature-adolescents-approach?search=elbow%20injury%20children&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~38&usage_type=default&display_rank=1

Chorley, J., & Brooks, G. P. (2020). Traumatic causes of acute shoulder pain and injury in children and adolescents – UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/traumatic-causes-of-acute-shoulder-pain-and-injury-in-children-and-adolescents?search=atraumatic%20shoulder%20pain&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1

Decker, J. E., & Hergenroeder, A. C. (2020). Evaluation of the child or adolescent athlete with neck pain or injury – UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-the-child-or-adolescent-athlete-with-neck-pain-or-injury?search=neck%20pain&source=search_result&selectedTitle=2~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=2

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